The national policy for the promotion of electricity, produced from renewable energy sources, starting from Leg. Decree No. 387/2003, in implementation of the Directive 2001/77/EC, has contributed significantly to the increase of distributed generation (DG) in the electrical system.
In fact, thanks to the advantageous incentive systems, many plants have been built throughout the territory for the production of energy from renewable sources, connected to the electricity grid especially in low and medium voltage. This new scenario calls for a rethinking of the use and management of the electricity network and its energy flows. Internationally, this new scenario of the electricity system is associated with the use of Smart Grid. Where this term is defined as: "a highly efficient electrical system, with high levels of quality and safety and low operating costs, capable of integrating all its users (producers and consumers), for example by ensuring that they interact, exchanging energy with each other, via existing electricity grids."
In March 2011 the European Commission, with the publication of the document "Smart Grid Mandate M/490 EN", gave mandate to some European Bodies to define and develop a framework of common rules to regulate the development of Smart Grid in Europe. The latter have an essential role in the process of transformation of the current electrical system, as they are geared towards promoting a more active role for users and a strategic role in European energy policy by supporting the achievement of the Europe 2020 objectives:
- reduction of CO2 emissions by 20% compared to 1990 levels;
- 20% of European energy production from renewable sources;
- 20% of energy savings with the implementation of energy efficiency.
They constitute the necessary technological and infrastructural substrate for the implementation of new models of systemic development, for the creation of new urban tissues and the transformation of existing settlements, that in fact are concretized in what is now commonly called "Smart City". The latter represents an excellent business opportunity for all companies, who are sufficiently prepared to face the new economic markets that are born in the areas affected by the development of the same Smart City.
For more information, see the Smart Grid website.