Within the region of Sardinia are four main types of "industrial settlement areas", which include:
- Provincial Industrial Consortia (CIPs);
- Industrial Areas of Regional Interest (ZIR)
- Productive Settlement Plans (PIP areas);
- Business incubators
Consortia and the settlement plans may have a municipal or supra-municipal extension and both are managed by the public administration.
The Regional Government of Sardinia reorganized industrial consortia with the law n. 10 of July 25, 2008, which identified n. 8 Provincial Industrial Consortia (CIP) and has initiated the wind up process of the suppressed ZIR Consortia.
The CIPs are distinguished based on their province of residence and on the type of productive activity of their companies.
For example, the consortia of Macchiareddu Portovesme and Porto Torres, are characterized by the presence of energy-intensive companies of the petrochemical and metallurgical industries; the Oristano Consortium is made mainly by the agro-food companies while, finally the Olbia Consortium is based on the nautical industries.
The PIP areas were established by Law no. 685 of 22 October 1971 and are intended to encourage the development of the activities of small and medium-sized industrial and craft enterprises within municipal areas.
PIPs are urban planning tools designed to ensure on the one hand the orderly regionalization of productive activities within a given municipality and on the other the valorisation and growth of local manufacturers.
Business incubators offer support aimed at helping businesses to survive and grow during in the risky start-up phase.